The mineral, selenium, is a powerful antioxidant. Additionally, research has found other mechanisms of action of interest to breast cancer patients. Linking Selenium Deficiency to Breast Cancer In 80 breast cancer patients who had a mastectomy, their blood levels of selenium were lower than in healthy patients. In the patients, there was a significantly higher concentration of selenium in cancerous tissue, as opposed to adjacent healthy tissue. The higher concentration of selenium in cancerous tissue may be attributable in part to selenium's defense mechanism selenium activates the antioxidant glutathione against the carcinogenic process.
‘Bursts’ of chromosome changes fuel breast cancer tumor growth
Breast Cancer Genes and Inheritance
That is really encouraging. Age at the time of diagnosis affects breast cancer survival rates It has always been known that curiously, young women under 40 at diagnosis have a poorer prognosis than older ones Indeed, one cohort study examined 4, women with breast cancer between and who were all treated at the same center. This study found that both ends of the age spectrum fared less well. So, women under the age of 40 years at diagnosis and those over 80 years had a statistically poorer prognosis. However, for younger women, this may be due to the fact that they often present with higher grade tumors that tend to be more aggressive and less likely to be hormone receptor positive. This means that the breast cancer may not respond as well to treatment. So, it is important to bear in mind other factors discussed in this post, such as stage, grade and hormone receptor status play an important role in prognosis.
Environmental Agents and Cancer Development Environmental Exposure Population epidemiological and laboratory studies have led to the discovery of many potential environmental factors in the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer. Starting with Pott's observations in the 18th century, certain occupations have been associated with an increased risk of cancer development. The recognition of increased scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps due to coal and tar exposure was followed by an observation in a British factory that all men distilling 2-napthylamine developed bladder cancer. Exposure to mustard gas, used as a chemical warfare agent in World War I has been associated with a higher risk of respiratory tract and lung cancers due to its mutagenic properties. Geographical Influences There have also been associations made between different geographical regions and particular cancers.
References where such information is derived are provided in the 'Reference' column. Discussion By summarizing and comparing the molecular features of breast cancer cell lines currently available to our knowledge with tumors, genetically and epigenetically, we categorize them into five subtypes, i. This is due to the fact that most lines are derived from invasive carcinoma for the sake of easy cultivation, toppling the uneven distribution encountered at the tumor level. Triple negative lines are identified as two separate groups, which correspond to basal A and B as referred to in most literatures.